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Selenium Java Cucumber: Implementing BDD for Agile Test Automation


Selenium Java Cucumber: Implementing BDD for Agile Test Automation

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As software development continues to evolve, adopting efficient and effective testing methodologies is imperative for ensuring high-quality products. One approach that has garnered substantial popularity is the implementation of Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) for Agile test automation in conjunction with Selenium automation testing and Java.

The Agile methodology was created to reduce the duration of the software development cycle, enable organizations to provide quicker releases. It follows a continuous feedback loop throughout the product development process, which differs from the traditional waterfall method, where testing and feedback occur after development is finished. Essentially, Agile is an iterative and incremental approach to software development that emphasizes adaptability to meet customer requirements.

Throughout this blog, we will explore the critical concepts of BDD, understand its benefits, and discover how to implement BDD test automation using Selenium and Java.

So, let’s explore the realm of BDD and harness the capabilities of Selenium and Java to achieve thorough and dependable software testing.

What is a BDD Framework?

BDD (Behavior-Driven Development) is a software development approach that emphasizes collaboration between developers, testers, and stakeholders. It provides a structured methodology for defining and validating the behavior of a software system.

BDD frameworks enable teams to express requirements and acceptance criteria in a natural language format that is easily readable and understood by both technical and non-technical stakeholders. This approach encourages effective collaboration and aligns development efforts with business objectives.

Behavior-driven development (BDD) complements the agile methodology by offering continual input from the end user’s viewpoint, contributing to enhanced testing efficiency.

BDD and Agile Test Automation

BDD (Behavior-Driven Development) and Agile Test Automation go hand in hand, complementing each other to enhance the software development and testing process.

BDD is an approach that promotes collaboration between developers, testers, and business stakeholders. It focuses on defining the behavior of the system from the user’s perspective, using a common language that all stakeholders easily understand.

BDD encourages clear and concise communication, ensuring everyone has a shared understanding of the desired system behavior.

Agile Test Automation, on the other hand, is an essential component of Agile software development methodologies. It involves automating the testing process to improve efficiency and speed, allowing for faster delivery of high-quality software. Agile Test Automation emphasizes continuous testing throughout the development cycle, enabling frequent feedback and early detection of defects.

When combined, BDD and Agile Test Automation create a powerful synergy. BDD provides a structured framework for defining test scenarios in a human-readable format, known as Gherkin syntax. This syntax allows technical and non-technical team members to collaborate effectively and contribute to the test automation effort.

With BDD, one can easily translate test scenarios into executable automation scripts.

Tools like Cucumber, which integrates with Selenium, allow for seamless integration between the Gherkin syntax and the automation code. This integration enables automated tests to be written behavior-driven, where the test scripts are aligned with the desired system behavior described in the Gherkin scenarios.

By leveraging BDD and Agile Test Automation, teams can achieve several benefits. These include improved collaboration between team members, increased test coverage, faster feedback cycles, and reduced rework. BDD encourages a shift-left approach, where testing becomes an integral part of the development process from the very beginning. This approach helps catch defects early, reducing the cost and effort associated with fixing issues in later stages of development.

What is Cucumber?

Cucumber is a widely recognized framework for implementing Behavior-Driven Development (BDD), enabling developers to conduct end-to-end testing seamlessly.

When combined with Selenium, Cucumber forms a robust framework that simplifies the creation of functional tests.

One of the key advantages of Cucumber is its ability to express acceptance criteria in a language that is easily readable and understandable by business stakeholders. It provides a clear description of the steps required to validate these criteria. Cucumber tests can be executed through a browser-like interface, providing a comprehensive view of the test progression at each stage.

How Does Cucumber Work?

Cucumber is a BDD (Behavior-Driven Development) framework that operates through three primary components:

1.    Feature File

Cucumber tests are written in plain text files known as feature files with the “.feature” extension. These files serve as documentation, describing the behavior and functionality of the software using a specific syntax called Gherkin. Feature files can include a description to enhance readability. Gherkin is a structured language that employs keywords like Given, When, and Then to outline the steps of a test scenario.

2.    Step Definitions

Each step mentioned in a feature file corresponds to a step definition, which is implemented in the code. Step definitions define the actions or operations to be executed for each step of the test scenario. Their purpose is to establish a mapping between plain text steps and their corresponding code implementations.

3.    Test Runner File

The test runner file in Cucumber is responsible for executing the Cucumber feature files and coordinating the steps defined within those feature files with their corresponding step definitions. It manages the execution flow of the tests, ensuring that the appropriate step definitions are executed for each step in the feature file.

How does Cucumber fit into Agile Projects?

Cucumber plays a crucial role in Agile projects by enabling teams to elevate their application development processes. It is a powerful tool for automating testing and documentation, allowing for increased efficiency and productivity.

One of Cucumber’s notable strengths is its capability to accommodate diverse stakeholders and intuitively facilitate the creation of acceptance test cases. Agile teams can leverage this feature to streamline their testing efforts and ensure that the developed software meets the desired requirements.

Cucumber is widely recognized as an excellent tool for agile development because it empowers product managers and business analysts to fine-tune the testable scenarios and align them with the evolving product. By utilizing Cucumber, teams can effectively reduce ambiguity in project scope and design, thereby enhancing the overall quality of the product before its final release.

In summary, Cucumber is a valuable asset for Agile projects, enabling teams to automate testing, streamline documentation, and align stakeholders’ expectations. By leveraging its features, teams can mitigate risks, improve collaboration, and deliver high-quality software promptly.

What is Selenium?

Selenium is a powerful automation tool designed for the functional testing of web-based applications. It supports various programming languages such as Java, Ruby, Python, C#, and more.

As an essential component of the testing toolkit, Selenium enables testers to automate interactions with web browsers, replicating user actions and validating expected behaviors. It’s versatility and cross-language compatibility make it a popular choice for automating web application testing across different platforms.

With Selenium, developers, and testers can write scripts to navigate through web pages, interact with elements, and perform actions like clicking buttons, filling out forms, and verifying content. It provides a robust framework for creating reliable and efficient test suites, identifying bugs, and ensuring the overall quality of web applications.

Setting up the Environment for Selenium Java Cucumber

Installation of Java and Eclipse IDE

In order to ensure that your system meets the required prerequisites, let’s check it out:

  • Operating System: Selenium supports Windows, macOS, and Linux distributions.
  • Java Development Kit (JDK): Ensure that JDK is installed on your system, as Selenium requires it to run.
  • Integrated Development Environment (IDE): We recommend using an IDE like Eclipse or IntelliJ IDEA for writing and executing Selenium scripts.

Step 1: Download Selenium WebDriver

To get started, we need to download the Selenium WebDriver, the core component for interacting with web browsers. Follow the steps below:

  • Visit the official Selenium website at
  • Click on the “Downloads” section.
  • Scroll down to the “Selenium WebDriver” section.
  • Choose your preferred programming language and click on the corresponding download link.

Step 2: Configure WebDriver with your IDE

Once you have downloaded Selenium WebDriver, the next step is to configure it with your preferred IDE. Here, we will provide instructions for setting up Selenium with Eclipse IDE:

  • The first step is to launch Eclipse and create a new Java project.Right-click on the project and select “Properties.”
  • Right-click on the project and select “Properties.”
  • In the properties window, navigate to “Java Build Path” and click on the “Libraries” tab.
  • Click on “Add External JARs” and navigate to the location where you saved the Selenium WebDriver JAR file.
  • To add the JAR file to your project’s classpath, choose it and click “Open”.

Step 3: Download Web Browser Drivers

To interact with different web browsers using Selenium, you need to download the respective web browser drivers. Selenium WebDriver provides drivers for popular browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and more. Follow these instructions to download the ChromeDriver:

  • Visit the official ChromeDriver website at
  • Find the latest stable version of ChromeDriver and click on the download link corresponding to your operating system.
  • Once the download is complete, extract the driver executable to a known location on your system.

Step 4: Set Up the System Path

To ensure that your system can locate the web browser drivers, you need to set up the system path. Follow these steps to add the drivers to your system path:

  • Right-click on “This PC” or “My Computer” and select “Properties.”
  • In the system properties window, click on “Advanced system settings.”
  • Navigate to the “Advanced” tab and click the “Environment Variables” button.
  • In the “System Variables” section, scroll down and select the “Path” variable.
  • Click on “Edit” and then “New” to add a new entry.
  • Enter the path to the folder containing the web browser drivers and click “OK.”

Step 5: Verify the Installation

To verify that Selenium is successfully installed on your system, let’s create a simple Selenium script:

  • Launch your preferred IDE and create a new Java class.
  • Import the necessary Selenium libraries.
  • Write a sample test script to open a web browser and navigate to a website.
  • Execute the script and check if the web browser launches successfully.

import org.openqa. Selenium.WebDriver;

import org.openqa.;

public class SeleniumTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        // Set the path to the ChromeDriver executable



        // Create a new instance of the ChromeDriver

        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

        // Navigate to a website


        // Close the browser




Suppose the script runs without errors and successfully opens the web browser; congratulations! You have successfully installed Selenium and executed a simple test script.

Advantages of using Selenium Java Cucumber for Agile Test Automation

There are several advantages of using Selenium with Java and Cucumber for Agile Test Automation:

●      Easy to understand and write test cases:

Selenium Java Cucumber framework uses the Gherkin syntax, which provides a human-readable format for defining test scenarios. This syntax allows technical and non-technical team members to understand and contribute to the test automation effort easily. Test cases can be written in a natural language format, making them highly readable and accessible to all stakeholders.

●      Reusability of code:

With Selenium Java Cucumber, you can create reusable code snippets or step definitions that one can easily share across different test scenarios. It promotes code reusability and reduces duplication of efforts. When a change or update is required, it can be made in a single place, ensuring consistency across multiple test cases. It improves the efficiency and maintainability of the test automation code.

●      Better collaboration between developers and testers:

Selenium Java Cucumber encourages collaboration between developers and testers. The Gherkin syntax provides a common language for communication, enabling both parties to have a shared understanding of the desired system behavior. Developers can implement the step definitions using Java, while testers can focus on writing the feature files and scenarios. This collaboration fosters effective communication, leading to a higher quality and more reliable test automation framework.

●      Integration with other tools and frameworks:

Selenium Java Cucumber integrates seamlessly with other tools and frameworks, allowing for a comprehensive test automation ecosystem. It can be easily integrated with build tools like Maven or Gradle for efficient dependency management. Additionally, it can be combined with continuous integration (CI) tools like Jenkins or TeamCity for constant testing and delivery. This integration enables a smooth workflow and enhances the overall test automation process.

It also integrates with software testing tools such as LambdaTest. LambdaTest is a Digital experience testing tool where you can accelerate the speed of Selenium automation testing on 3000+ environments including real device clouds. Apart from Selenium, it also supports all its major alternatives, such as Playwright, Cypress, Appium, and many more.

●      Enhanced reporting and test result analysis:

Selenium Java Cucumber provides built-in reporting capabilities for detailed test reports and result analysis. The framework generates easy-to-understand reports highlighting each scenario’s pass/fail status and providing insights into the test coverage. These reports can be shared with stakeholders, aiding in decision-making and providing visibility into the overall testing progress.

By leveraging Selenium Java Cucumber for Agile Test Automation, teams can benefit from improved test case readability, code reusability, efficient collaboration between developers and testers, seamless integration with other tools, and comprehensive reporting. These advantages contribute to a more effective and efficient Agile software development process, enabling faster delivery of high-quality software.


In conclusion, implementing Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) with Selenium, Java, and Cucumber for Agile test automation can significantly enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of your software testing process. BDD allows you to bridge the gap between technical and non-technical stakeholders, fostering collaboration and ensuring that everyone understands the software’s behavior. It promotes collaboration and communication among team members, facilitates rapid feedback, and ensures that the software meets the desired business requirements.

You can create robust and maintainable automated tests by using Selenium, a powerful and widely-used web automation tool, along with Java as the programming language. Selenium provides a rich set of features for interacting with web elements and validating the expected behavior of your application.

Cucumber complements Selenium and Java by offering a natural language framework for defining and organizing your test scenarios. Its Gherkin syntax allows you to write test scenarios in a human-readable format, making it easier for non-technical team members to contribute to the testing efforts. Cucumber’s integration with Selenium and Java enables seamless execution of the defined scenarios and generates detailed reports for test results.

However, it’s important to note that BDD is not a silver bullet. It requires proper planning, clear communication, and continuous collaboration among team members. The success of BDD implementation depends on the commitment and involvement of the entire team, including developers, testers, business analysts, and product owners.